Surrogacy: Definitions that you should know.

Glossary of surrogacy

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Glossary of Surrogacy

Have a Glossary of Surrogacy It is very important because often, when future fathers or mothers need to fully understand surrogacy, they end up being inundated with a lot of phrases and concepts that are a little unfamiliar to most.

Without a doubt, a lexicon that can be really complex or something new at times. However, unless you are a health expert and have experience in this field, you may not be aware of the interpretation and meaning of all these terms and definitions associated with modern assisted reproductive technology.

To be fully prepared for the Surrogacy process, it is important that you know the meaning of all these concepts and understand exactly how the specialists explain some terms used in the process.

This article describes and reveals some of the more popular definitions that it is important to be familiar with throughout your experience with surrogacy.

If there are any terms you can't find, leave us a comment and we will add it to this surrogacy glossary. Either a word, concept or expression that you want to know.


Glossary of terms: Surrogacy from A to Z.

Surrogacy Agency

The surrogacy agency is a professional body that offers a wide range of surrogacy services for future parents. These Agencies advise and incorporate the coordination, support and referral to trusted legal experts and clinics to complete your surrogacy. To simplify the surrogacy process for fathers and mothers, a surrogacy agency manages its money through the hiring of third parties.


Blastocyst: The embryo on the fifth or sixth day after fertilization has an inner cell mass, an outer layer of trophectoderm, and a fluid-filled cavity or blastocyst.


Oocyte donation cycle: The cycle of obtaining donor oocytes for clinical or research applications.


Embryo recipient cycle: An assisted reproductive cycle in which a woman receives a donated fertilized egg or embryo.


Oocyte recipient cycle: Assisted reproductive treatment cycle in which a woman receives oocytes from a donor.

TEC / D embryo transfer cycle: Assisted reproductive therapy, in which the follow-up is aimed at the transfer of cryopreserved thawed embryos.


Embryo transfer cycle: Assisted reproduction treatment cycle, in this cycle, one or more selected embryos are placed in the uterus of the pregnant woman.


Cryopreserved / Thawed Oocyte Transfer Cycle (TEC / D): To fertilize the cryopreserved / thawed oocytes and transfer the resulting embryos, a follow-up process is performed.


Cycle started: Assisted reproductive treatment, whether or not oocyte aspiration, women receive ovarian stimulation drugs.


Cycle for sperm receptor: A cycle of assisted reproductive treatment in which a woman receives sperm from a donor who is not her partner.


Zygote: Cell produced by the union of sperm and eggs. The result of the fertilization of sperm and oocytes are diploid cells, which then divide to form embryos.


Reproductive surgery: Surgical procedures performed for diagnosis, preservation, correction and / or improvement of reproductive function.


Cryopreservation: Freezing or vitrification and storage of gametes, zygotes, embryos, or gonadal tissue.

Cryopreservation technique
Cryopreservation technique

Fertility Clinic: It is a medical organization that completes the IVF and embryo transfer process. Both prospective parents and surrogates should work closely with their fertility clinic to complete surrogacy.


Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD): Analyze oocytes, polar bodies of zygotes or embryos, blastomeres or trophectoderm to detect specific, genetic, structural and / or chromosomal changes.


Egg or sperm donor:If the intended father cannot produce the embryo himself, this is the person he uses to complete the gamete. It could be someone you know or someone who found donations from anonymous people through a gamete bank or fertility clinic.


Anonymous donors: They are donors to whom you or your child will not have the right to identifying information. There may be some information available about the donor. Most countries have laws requiring donors abroad to be anonymous.


Double donation: The egg and sperm are donated and then fertilized for implantation.


Embryo donation: The embryos that remained after fertilization were frozen and their owners later decided not to use them. The donor can be a pair of spouses or the donated gametes can be used for fertility treatment. Foreign embryos can be created specifically for couples or single women who need both male and female gametes.


Known donors: They are donors whose identity is known at the time of donation. They can be friends or family, or they can make private donations at licensed clinics or outside of the licensed clinic system.


Identity Release Donors: They are donors and their identity will be provided to recipients and / or future generations at a specific time.


Private donors: Donors who donate through other organizations outside of the regulated system (through anonymous or identifiable means), or donors recruited from friends, family, or other means.


Egg donor: Women who donate eggs or oocytes for the assisted reproduction process through IVF.


Gestational age:  The age of the embryo or fetus can be calculated by adding two weeks (14 days) to the number of weeks completed after fertilization.

Please note: For transfer of cryopreserved / thawed embryos, the estimated date of fertilization is calculated by subtracting the age of the embryo at the time of cryopreservation from the date of transfer of cryopreserved and thawed embryos.


Biochemical pregnancy (preclinical miscarriage): A pregnancy that can only be diagnosed by detecting HCG in serum or urine, and will not develop during clinical pregnancy.


Clinical pregnancy: Pregnancy diagnosed by ultrasound visualization of one or more gestational sacs or confirmed clinical signs of pregnancy. This includes ectopic pregnancy.

Please note: multiple gestational sacs are counted as a single clinical pregnancy.


Ectopic pregnancy: A pregnancy that implants outside the uterine cavity. Embryo / Fetus Reduction: A procedure to reduce the number of viable embryos or fetuses in multiple pregnancies.


Embryo: Product of the division of the zygote until the end of the embryonic stage.


Pairing: It is the process of matching an egg donor or surrogate egg with the intended father.


Controlled ovarian stimulation (EOC): Pharmacological treatments in which the woman is stimulated to induce the development of more than one oocyte.


Controlled ovarian stimulation (EOC) for Assisted Reproductive Treatment: Pharmacological treatment in which the woman is stimulated to induce the development of multiple follicles to obtain multiple oocytes in follicular suction.


Gentle ovarian stimulation for IVF: The procedure for stimulating the ovaries with gonadotropins and / or other compounds aims to limit the number of oocytes obtained by IVF to less than seven.


Surrogacy Facilitator: An outside company or individual is often the first point of contact for employed parents using surrogacy arrangements abroad. The coordinator is usually not in the country where the IVF and replacement process takes place. Most parent guardians will communicate with the coordinator via email and Skype. The possibility of signing a surrogacy contract abroad is to cooperate with a promotion company and then make the payment to an external provider.


In vitro fertilization (IVF): Assisted reproductive technology (ART) that involves in vitro fertilization. In other words, this is the process of fertilizing an egg with sperm outside the uterus in a test tube or Petri dish in a controlled environment. The reproductive endocrinologist performs the procedure in the IVF clinic.


Fertilization:  The sperm enters the oocyte and its genetic material, leading to the formation of a zygote.


Gametes: This refers to the sperm or the eggs. Although they are not strictly gametes, they usually include embryos in the term.


Multiple gestation: Pregnancy with more than one fetus or baby.


Surrogate mother: The pregnant woman has agreed to give birth to the baby to the future parents. Gametes can come from intended parents and / or third parties.


Destiny father: People who are considering traveling by surrogacy. Many people may already have one or more children.


Implantation: Union usually in the endometrium, beginning 5 to 7 days after fertilization.


Ovulation induction (IO): Pharmacological treatment of women with anovulation or oligo-ovulation with the intention of inducing normal ovulatory cycles.


Infertility: Reproductive system disease is defined as the inability to obtain a clinical pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse for 12 months or more.


Intrauterine insemination (IUI): IUI is a simpler and painless type of artificial insemination (AI), offered at a lower price compared to other fertility treatments, it is often one of the first infertility treatments patients follow.


Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI): It is the process of injecting a single sperm into the cytoplasm of an oocyte.


MESA (acronym in English): Microsurgical aspiration of epididymal sperm.


MESE (for its acronym in English): Microsurgical extraction of epididymal sperm.


Micromanipulationn: Technology that allows microsurgical procedures to be carried out on sperm, oocytes, zygotes or embryos.


MicroTESE: Microsurgical extraction of testicular sperm.


Intended parent: Person or persons who become the legal father of a child through surrogacy.


Gestational Carrier / Surrogate / Surrogate Mother: The standard definition of surrogacy is actually a girl who conceives a child for a person or partner who cannot start a family on her own. In many countries, the term surrogacy is also used to refer to these women who give birth through assisted reproduction.


IVF provider: Medical services will generally include embryologists, laboratory technicians, and reproductive medicine specialists. The team is responsible for egg and sperm retrieval, embryo creation, donor and surrogate mother preparation, and embryo transfer procedures.


Known gamete supplier with parental intent: The person who provided their own eggs or sperm has a written agreement that states the intentions of the parents of any resulting children. Such an arrangement may allow full parental guardianship, as in the case of surrogacy, or partial guardianship, as in a joint paternity agreement.


Known gamete supplier without parental intent: Persons who provide their own eggs or sperm for the purpose of giving birth have agreed to provide their identifying information for further contact with the child (person), but do not intend to play any parental role (for example, sperm or the provider's eggs).


Unknown gamete provider: A person provides their own eggs or sperm to help singles or couples to have children, but they do not want to meet their children, so they do not intend to become parents.


Beta test: A blood test to check if a woman is pregnant about 10 days after the embryo transfer. Measures levels of estradiol, progesterone, LH and HCG (hormones that indicate pregnancy).


Egg retrieval: The process of extracting donor eggs for fertilization.


Medically assisted reproduction (RMA):  Reproduction is achieved through ovulation induction, controlled ovarian stimulation, ovulation trigger, assisted reproductive technology (ART), intrauterine, intracervical, or intravaginal insemination, and semen from the husband / partner or donor.


Gestational sac: It is the structure that contains the fetus associated with early pregnancy can be located outside or inside the uterus (if the pregnancy has complications).


Evanescent sac (s) or embryo (s): Loss of one or more fetuses in the first weeks of pregnancy. Documented ultrasound of spontaneous disappearance of one or more embryos or gestational sacs from an ongoing pregnancy.


Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS): Occasionally, complications occur when women take certain medications to stimulate egg production. The excessive systemic response to ovarian stimulation is characterized by a wide range of clinical and laboratory manifestations. According to the degree of abdominal distention, respiratory complications, ovarian enlargement, metabolism and hemodynamics, it is classified as mild, moderate or severe.


Gestational Surrogacy or Surrogacy: A pregnancy in which the mother and baby are not genetically related. Embryos are produced using eggs from the mother or intended egg donor and sperm from the father or intended sperm donor (if necessary).


Traditional surrogacy: The surrogate mother has a genetic relationship with the baby and becomes pregnant through artificial insemination. Although traditional surrogacy was once more common, most surrogacy contracts today involve gestational surrogacy.


Traditional surrogacy (TS): It involves the artificial insemination of sperm from the surrogate mother and the intended father by IUI, IVF, or home fertilization. In this way, the child is genetically related to her father and surrogate mother.


Uncompensated / Altruistic Surrogacy: When the contemporary pregnant mother does not receive any remuneration for the upbringing of the child, reimbursement of expenses and loss of income is excluded.


Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS): The embryo's chromosomes are evaluated for possible abnormalities. Analyze embryos, oocytes or fertilized egg polar bodies, blastomeres or trophoblasts to detect DNA mutations and / or abnormalities.


Clinical pregnancy rate: Number of pregnancies achieved for every hundred treatments started. Number of clinical pregnancies per hundred started cycles, embryo transfer or aspirate cycles. When presenting clinical pregnancy rates, the cycles aspirated and initiated, as well as transfers, must be specified.


Implantation rate: Relationship between gestational sacs with the number of transferred embryos.


Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART): Set of techniques to achieve a pregnancy that cannot be achieved naturally. Treatments which include the manipulation of sperm, human embryos or oocytes whose purpose is to establish a pregnancy. The most common technologies of assisted reproduction are: intracytoplasmic sperm injection, in vitro fertilization and surrogacy.


Embryo transfer (TE): A simple technique to deposit embryos in the uterus / fallopian tube. The process of transferring one or more embryos to the uterus or fallopian tubes.


Elective embryo transfer: Transfer of one or more embryos, selected from a larger set of embryos.


Frozen embryo transfer: The process occurs when frozen embryos (eggs that have been fertilized and frozen) are thawed and transferred to a surrogate.


Vitrification: Technique for freezing eggs or sperm. The assisted copy method for cryopreservation is super fast, it can prevent freezing and solidify in a way similar to glass.

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